Fenwick, G. D., & Ogilvie, S. (2001, September). Long-term changes in tuatua populations on Brighton Beach: An investigation of traditional ecological knowledge. National Institute of Water and Atmosphere Research.

Commissioned in 2000 by NIWA, the purpose of this report was to document historical changes in tuatua (Paphies donacina) abundance and factors influencing population distribution on Brighton Beach from local Māori Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK). This study formed part of a larger assessment of tuatua on Brighton Beach following concerns raised by Ngāi Tūāhuriri and Ngāi Tahu Rūnanga to the Ministry of Fisheries about increased harvesting pressure on tuatua.

According to the report, TEK is cumulative knowledge, practices, and beliefs about the interrelationships of all life with their environment that is transmitted culturally between generations. Although the researchers contacted those with access to Waitaha and Ngāi Tahu TEK with the intention of enhancing management decisions for Brighton tuatua for mutual benefit, both rūnanga declined to participate for several reasons. From this experience, the researchers noted the importance of involving local rūnanga at the earliest stages of any future investigations.

Local knowledge gained from two non-Māori respondents indicated that natural events did have profound effects on the local abundance of tuatua. It also suggested that an overall decline in tuatua abundance over the last 30 years had resulted from changes in harvesting behaviour in Ōtautahi.